Many Personal Trainers in Sydney have clients with type 2 diabetes - the global epidemic continues. The WHO predicts that diabetes will be the 7th leading cause of death in 2030. For prevention, body weight management and a healthy diet are recommended. Furthermore, at least 30 min of regular, moderate-intense physical activity five times a week is required. Unfortunately, these strategies suffer from low levels of compliance.
Low levels of exercise compliance is a common issue faced by Personal Trainers Sydney. There are myriads of intervention studies dealing with the best exercise type, frequency, intensity, and duration. The scientific discussion is still ongoing. Indeed, positive effects of regularly performed exercise on cardiorespiratory fitness and metabolic control are without dispute. Despite this knowledge, less than 40 % of European countries developed national recommendations for physical activity.
Most of the conducted studies into diabetes and exercise found improvements in metabolic and cardiorespiratory endpoints after training intervention, but highly variable inter-individual responses were observed. For example, glucose homeostasis, reflected by insulin sensitivity, acute insulin response, glucose effectiveness, and glucose disappearance index was shown to have a two-sided shape, ranging from high responders to non-responders, even adverse responders that show a deterioration of the respective endpoint.
Non-response defined as no improvement regarding glucose homeostasis, leads to 7–63 % non-responders. Most of the conducted studies are performed without a control group. Thus, the opinion exists that exercise might cause adverse metabolic effects for some individuals. However, a study carried out with 87 participants including a control group, demonstrated clearly a decreased number of an adverse response (41 %) versus 76 % in control group; the adverse response was defined as increased fasting glucose, 2-h glucose, and triglycerides, as well as a decrease for HDL-cholesterol.
Notably, the failure to improve one metabolic factor is not necessarily reflected by a non-response in other variables, e.g., VO2max, and vice versa. Although there is a clear positive correlation of VO2max and insulin sensitivity in the general population and an increase in VO2max correlates with the improvement in glucose homeostasis, this is not true for each individual. Furthermore, despite a relevant exercise-related improvement of systolic blood pressure, body weight, VO2max, lipid profile, etc., one may not have a beneficial effect on glucose homeostasis; this adds even more complexity to this issue.
It is still under debate, exactly which training intervention is the best, but our best guess is a combination of low-amount/vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise and resistance training. Athletes have practised High-intensity interval training for some time, and it can be superior to moderate-intense, time-consuming continuous training in improving glucose homeostasis after just short training duration.
In general, we should clearly encourage personal training clients to increase their physical activity. There are many aspects, e.g., socio-economic, quality of life, etc., beyond specific metabolic endpoints, which are worth being an active individual. Nevertheless, personalised adjustments of exercise recommendations are inevitable, different training strategies for individual subgroups may be necessary.
Who is the non-responder? What are risk factors for non-response? How can we predict the non-response with easy-to-use parameters? Which of several training regimes could overcome non-response? Is interval training the new winner? Is there a correlation of several metabolic endpoints? To what extent? And valid for every individual? What are the underlying molecular pathomechanisms for non-response? Are we able to discriminate discrete pathomechanisms, and what is their impact on whole-body glucose homeostasis?
So many questions, so few answers. For now, just keep exercising.
Personal Trainers generally enjoy cardio exercise!
But did you know, cardio exercise doesn't just improve physical wellbeing; it also improves cognition and mental health?
The brain is continuously balancing two conflicting requirements: it must retain enough structural integrity to maintain proper neurotransmission, while remaining malleable enough to restructure itself and adapt to changing environmental demands. The interest in the underlying biology which underpins the link between cardio exercise and a better brain has increased significantly over the past decade, giving hope that prescriptive exercise programs for the treatment of 'brain disease' might not be far away.
Regarding the brain structures most affected, it seems the hippocampus may hold the key. Research shows that the addition of cardio exercise to existing treatment approaches may promote hippocampal function and alleviate cognitive deficits. Cardio exercise also has a potent impact on stimulating neuroplasticity. These findings are important as cardio exercise has general benefits to one's physical health, low-risk profile and is relatively easy to implementation for patients. It may also have many other advantages to patient well-being, such as limiting the risk of adverse side effects of current therapies.
Ask your personal trainer about cardio for your brain today...
Written for MedLab.
Physical activity, by definition, is an umbrella term which encompasses any movement of the human body produced by skeletal muscle contraction, leading to an increase in energy expenditure. Physical activity in daily life can be broken down into exercise, occupational, sports, household, or other activities. Exercise, as a subset of physical activity, is a planned, structured, and repetitive activity that has as a final or an intermediate objective. This is the core business of a personal trainer.
In the world of exercise, there has been an explosion of exercise styles in recent years. People have been experimenting with the way they move their bodies through a myriad of different forms of exercise, everything from Crossfit to Zumba. As far as the literature is concerned, there are essentially three forms of exercise that have been studied: aerobic exercise, High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) and resistance training.
Aerobic exercise, synonymous with cardio exercise, is a form of physical activity that is performed at a steady rate, typically within 60-80% of your maximum heart rate. This steady state means that the body uses oxygen to meet its energy demands. This form of exercise can be done for extended periods of time and is the most extensively studied form of exercise. High-intensity interval training (HIIT), synonymous with Intervals, uses alternating periods of intense anaerobic exercise with a less intense recovery period. HIIT is also a form of cardio exercise but generally speaking, participants are only able to perform this type of training for shorter periods than aerobic exercise. Resistance training, synonymous with weight training, induces muscle contraction against high loads of resistance which have the net effect of building the size and anaerobic endurance of skeletal muscles. All three forms of exercise have been shown to improve health. Significant benefits are observed in the prevention and treatment of all -cause mortality, cardiovascular-related mortality, diabetes, cancer, and osteoporosis.
But what about mental health? Does exercise improve outcomes for patients with depression? Doubts were cast over the efficacy of exercise as a therapy for depression when a Cochrane review paper in 2013 concluded that, although there was a moderate benefit in symptom reduction for patients with depression engaged in exercise vs. control groups, there was not a statistically significant difference when the analysis only included high-quality studies. This study received widespread attention at the time and was quick to be countered. A subsequent meta-analysis found large antidepressant effects of exercise on depression when compared to non-active controls. Interestingly, the antidepressant effect of exercise was higher for studies that included participants diagnosed with MDD. The authors of this review highlighted that control groups used in clinical trials often recorded substantial and significant antidepressant effects, which makes the detection of effects in exercise groups much more challenging. Further, they explained the difference in their finding vs. the Cochrane review as being due to three factors: (1) the inclusion criteria, (2) the statistical test used to evaluate the ES, and (3) the inclusion of more recent trials.
Despite the effect on symptom reduction, remission rates in clinical trials are similar to pharmacological interventions and display a significant amount of heterogeneity depending on the amount of exercise performed. One potential explanation to the heterogeneity in response rates can be due the heterogeneity of depression itself. This is an important point for the future researcher to navigate. Despite these difficulties, there does appear to be a dose-response relationship on depression which is a trend seen when examining other physical health conditions. It seems, about half of people with depression will experience significant improvements from exercise with greater improves seen with those who exercise for longer.
Exercise plays an important part in an overall management plan for depression. Given the significant benefits for overall health and its low side effect profile, patients should be encouraged to engage in regular exercise. Regarding which type of exercise is best, in clinical samples, only aerobic exercises had significant effects on depression in clinical studies, though it should be stressed that resistance exercise has only been considered in a handful of studies. Moreover, no RCT was identified when investigating the effects of resistance exercise in samples comprised entirely of participants with MDD. Supervised interventions had the most profound effects. Interestingly, where the exercise takes place may have a small impact on outcomes. It seems that exercise programs that were completed outdoors were more effective than those performed indoors. Mum’s advice to go out and get some fresh air might not be so trite after all. Regardless of where it takes place, we can be confident that seeking professional expertise to oversee the exercise program is of paramount importance. Exercise supervised by professionals with relevant training, including personal trainers and exercise physiologists, was associated with the greatest improvements in patients with depression. This result, added to previous findings of lower dropout rates in interventions delivered by exercise professionals in people with depression, highlights the importance of adequately trained professionals providing exercise interventions. Key considerations for the physician referring to an exercise professional include convenience, cost, and style of program. It is also important to involve social supports into the overall exercise plan. Supports that are educated on the benefits of exercise and gain an understanding of what the patient is trying to achieve can improve outcomes for the patient.
The exact dose of exercise for the management of depression still requires further investigation. Moderate and vigorous-intensity exercises were shown to be more effective than light to moderate intensity exercises. However, this finding needs to be interpreted with caution, since it is based on a small number of studies. That being said, the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) released a position stand which recommended 150 minutes per week for maintenance of good health. The ACSM recommends that most adults engage in moderate-intensity aerobic exercise training for 30 minutes a day, five days a week. This recommendation is in alignment with the Australian government's physical activity target's for good health. The ACSM also recommends 2-3 days per week of resistance exercises.
Hippocrates, the father of medicine, once said that walking is man’s best medicine. He might be right indeed.
As we transition out of the winter months toward to glory of spring, nature will once again serve as a backdrop to Personal training Sydney CBD. And it seems that there may be a renewed impetus for this location shift. A study published in 2010 showed that exercise performed outdoors improved mood and self esteem to a greater degree than those who experienced the same sessions indoors. Indeed, the effect was amplified if the outdoor location was within sight of water!
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A phytochemical is any biologically active compound found in plants.
Why are phytochemicals important?
They may be an important key in the good health puzzle. It's not all about vitamins and minerals.
Here is a piece of scientific literature published in the Americal Journal of Clinical Nutrition if your interested:
I'm off to eat some beans...
If you rounded up the worlds top 100 nutritionists into a room, all of whom had differing philosophies, locked the door and told them they couldn't leave until they all agreed on one nutritional principle here is what would likely result.
Vegetables are good for you and you should eat more of them.
If your interested in the scientific literature you can begin your discovery here: http://search.proquest.com/openview/4ef80c35b89696e16538d07b5db7a5f0/1?pq-origsite=gscholar
I'm off to eat a carrot...
If you have a chronic health condition then you are undoubtedly concerned about how you can manage your condition. But if you don't currently have a chronic health condition but you do pay taxes then you might also have cause for concern.
Chronic diseases are among the leading causes of death and disability in Australia. Health economists generally agree that the prevalence of these conditions is likely to rise in the future and as a result this will begin to cause significant pressure on the health care system as services struggle to cope with the increase in demand for services. Ultimately, it will be the tax payer that bears the burden.
With this in mind, the Federal Government has developed the 8 National health priority areas. In doing so a range of initiatives has and will continue to be developed to combat the rising prevalence. The chronic disease covered include:
- Cardiovascular disease
- Mental health
The problem seems so overwhelming that one might ask what a personal trainer might do to help. The answer is a lot. It turns out that studies have shown overwhelmingly that consistent exercise improves the outcomes of all 8 National health priority areas. So be part of the solution and get your clients moving.
Fatigue can be defined as extreme tiredness resulting from mental or physical exertion or illness. In exercise training terms, fatigue determines your ability to sustain repeated efforts of a single movement.
A distinction should be made between central and peripheral fatigue with the former being thought of as a mental fatigue and the latter a fatigue of the neuromuscular junction.
Endurance is defined as the ability of the body to resist fatigue. To improve endurance requires you to challenge both central and peripheral nervous systems. Think of a marathon runner and a weight lifter - both achieving fatigue in training but at completely opposite ends of the training systems spectrum. This week, try altering your training intensities and see if you can notice the difference between central and peripheral fatigue.
We have all heard the old training adage "No pain, no gain." But before you reach for the black leather lets pause for a moment and consider the validity of the statement.
Pain is defined as an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage. On a more technical level it involves the stimulation of nociceptors or "pain nerves" most commonly by thermal (e.g. touching boiling water), mechanical (e.g. treading on a nail) and/or chemical (putting chilli in the eyes) stimuli.
In the context of exercise training, the pain that one experiences 0-72 hours following training is commonly referred to as Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS) and is typically the result of inflammatory mediators interacting with nociceptors. The question is whether you need an inflammatory response to gain a physical improvement?
Sports science and personal trainer sydney CBD says no.
Perhaps a more appropriate adage to adopt would be "no effort, no gain." With this approach an individual would mark them self on whether or not they consciously push themselves rather than whether or not they wake up the following morning with musculoskeletal soreness. Thus the important distinction between the pain of effort as opposed to the pain of injury can be made, with the former being a prerequisite for adaptation and ultimately training success.
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